添加：2018-11-30 更新：2018-12-03 期中考试 手机版
One of the greatest gifts one generation can give to other generations is the wisdom it has gained from experience. This idea has inspired the award-winning photographer Andrew Zuckerman. He interviewed and took photos of fifty over sixty-five-year olds all over the world. His project explores various aspects of their lives. The photos and interviews are now available on our website.
Click on the introductions to read the complete interviews.
Let us now have a culture of peace.
—Federico Mayor Zaragoza, Spain
Federico Mayor Zaragoza obtained a doctorate in pharmacy(药学) from the Complutense University of Madrid in 1958. After many years spent in politics, he became Director General of UNESCO in 1987. In 1999, he created the Foundation for a Culture of Peace, of which he is now the president. In addition to many scientific publications, he has published four collections of poems and several books of essays.
Writing is a discovery.
—Nadine Gordimer, South Africa
Due to a weak heart, Nadine Gordimer attended school and university briefly. She read widely and began writing at an early age. She published her first short story at the age of fifteen, and has completed a large number of works, which have been translated into forty languages. In 1991, Gordimer won the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Jazz is about the only form of art today.
—Dave Brubeck, USA
Dave Brubeck studied music at the University of the Pacific and graduated in 1942. After World War Ⅱ he was encouraged to play jazz. In 1951, he recorded his first album. Brubeck's 1959 album has become a jazz standard. He received a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1996.
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An Israeli law banning too skinny models went into effect with the start of 2013. The law, approved last March in Israel, requires models to prove they have maintained a Body Mass Index (BMI) of at least 18.5 for three months before a fashion show. That means a woman who is 68 inches tall can weigh no less than 119 pounds.
"This law is another step in the war against eating disorders," said physician Adatto. "Underweight models," he explained, "can no longer serve as role models for innocent young people who copy their false image of being skinny."
But some critics in this country say it is misguided, focusing on weight instead of health. They also say the Israeli ban is bound to fail because of the strong power of the fashion industry. "I think it's an approach that isn't going to work." said eating disorder expert Susan Ice, who worked with an organization which creates a healthy working environment for models.
But Adatto told the reporter that he began to concern the issue after meeting an ambitious model who looked like she needed to be hospitalized. He said. "I realized that only legislation(立法) can change the situation. There was no time to waste; so many girls were dieting to death."
However, the efforts to regulate models' weight in Spain and Italy have not resulted in significant changes in part because of difficulties in determining reliable methods of measuring weight and health.
Still, folks including Ice say there's no denying that images from Hollywood and the fashion industry can be difficult for young women to deal with. "Certainly I don't believe the modeling industry has caused the rise in eating disorders, but it makes it harder," she says. "It's a difficult recovery environment, worshiping thinness as the beauty ideal."
Youth football team members rescued more than two weeks after sudden flooding trapped them in a cave in Thailand are now being well looked after at a hospital in the northern city of Chiang Rai. In addition to treating the boys for potential body fluid loss, inadequate nutrition and lack of oxygen, their doctors also plan to closely monitor them for symptoms of diseases that may have been infected by animals living in the cave.
"The next step is to make sure those kids and their families are safe, because living in a cave provides a different environment, which might contain animals that could transmit…disease," said the local hospital. The boys and their family members have been told to watch for symptoms such as headache, nausea(反胃), muscle pain or difficulty breathing, the reports added.
Yet based on the location where the boys were trapped—more than four kilometers from the cave complex's main entrance, past some fully submerged passages—and the fact they have been swimming out wearing full scuba face masks, it seems unlikely that they were living with bats in the cave or breathed in bat-associated bacteria during their rescue, several infectious disease experts said. "It's hard to imagine bats got that deep into the cave because of all those narrow passageways, but it is possible," says Ian Lipkin, an animal expert and professor at the Mailman School of Public Health at Columbia University. "It's unlikely that there would be many animals in there," notes Jonathan Epstein, a doctor at EcoHealth Alliance, a nonprofit organization that studies diseases and how to prevent them. Bats typically like to rest in areas they can easily enter and exit, not in places that fully flood, he adds.
Bats in Thailand have been linked with a wide range of viruses that are similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)—Lipkin says. But it seems more likely the boys would have been exposed to infection-causing bacteria when they swam through the dirty water with cuts and scrapes. "If you are trying to prioritize issues with respect to health care for these kids, number one would be psychological damage and second will be bacterial infections from the cuts and scrapes they may have encountered." Lipkin says.
We've all been there: in a lift, in line at the bank or on an airplane, surrounded by people who are, like us, deeply focused on their smartphones or, worse, struggling with the uncomfortable silence.
What's the problem? It's possible that we all have compromised conversational intelligence. It's more likely that none of us start a conversation because it's awkward and challenging, or we think it's annoying and unnecessary. But the next time you find yourself among strangers, consider that small talk is worth the trouble. Experts say it's an invaluable social practice that results in big benefits.
Dismissing small talk as unimportant is easy, but we can't forget that deep relationships wouldn't even exist if it weren't for casual conversation. Small talk is the grease(润滑剂) for social communication, says Bernardo Carducci, director of the Shyness Research Institute at Indiana University Southeast. "Almost every great love story and each big business deal begins with small talk," he explains. "The key to successful small talk is learning how to connect with others, not just communicate with them."
In a 2014 study, Elizabeth Dunn, associate professor of psychology at UBC, invited people on their way into a coffee shop. One group was asked to seek out an interaction with its waiter; the other, to speak only when necessary. The results showed that those who chatted with their server reported significantly higher positive feelings and a better coffee shop experience. "It's not that talking to the waiter is better than talking to your husband," says Dunn. "But interactions with peripheral(边缘的) members of our social network matter for our well-being also."
Dunn believes that people who reach out to strangers feel a significantly greater sense of belonging, a bond with others. Carducci believes developing such a sense of belonging starts with small talk. "Small talk is the basis of good manners," he says.
Claustrophobia, or fear of enclosed spaces, in one of the most common fears. Claustrophobia can be deep fear or even panic as a result of being in a small space.
Claustrophobia can develop after a troubling childhood experience, or from another unpleasant experience later on in life related to small spaces. . This response then becomes programmed in the brain, making an association between being in a tight space and feeling anxious or out-of-control. As a result, the person often develops claustrophobia.
. Claustrophobia symptoms can include: sweating, accelerated heartbeat, upset stomach, shaking, breathing problem, etc. The claustrophobia sufferer will look for an exit when inside a room, avoid driving on the highway or major roads where there is heavy traffic when inside a car, or stand near a door when at a party. .
Claustrophobia can have harmful social and psychological effects, since the patient will often avoid situations in which she thinks she will have an anxiety attack, leading to hiding and sadness.
. Exposure treatment, a form of mind-behavioral treatment, usually results in a total reduction in anxiety symptoms if conducted properly. Flooding is a type of exposure treatment in which the person is exposed to a situation until the anxiety attack passes. . Medications to help treat claustrophobia include things which help to ease the heart beating to fast often associated with anxiety attacks.
A. According to some doctors, claustrophobia is worse than the fear of heights
B. The past experience can trace back to the moment of birth
C. The good news is that claustrophobia is very treatable
D. When a person with claustrophobia finds herself in a restricted space, her body responds in certain ways
E. In extreme cases, the very sight of a closed door can lead to feelings of anxiety in a person
F. Treatment for claustrophobia can also include medication or a combination of several treatments
G. When a person experiences such an event, it can often cause a frightening panic attack
In a fast-paced world driven by noise, excitement, and continuous connections due to technology, I think we've lost a(n) 1 for something essential to the human experience: Quiet.
I'm not talking about the library style version of soft whispers, but about the soul-defining quiet of introspection(自省), of solitude and of being 2.
This past weekend, I found myself glued to my computer screen in a flurry (忙乱) of 3 work to build my career. I was 4social media and worrying about building my vision for tomorrow. Like so many evenings, the call of the internet had 5 me in, and the beautiful July night in Pennsylvania was6 —until my husband stepped in and reminded me that there's more to life than noises, likes and followers.
We got into our truck and drove ten minutes to a local state park, a place that has7our different stages of life through the years. Phones and computers 8, we spent the evening in nature, enjoying simple scenes and 9 in the quiet of the setting.
Gone were the rings of notifications（通知）, the honking horns of cars flying by, and the 10of YouTube videos. In their place, a silence 11 something we both know but sometimes lose 12 of: Life's quiet, simple moments are sometimes the most beautiful.
In these peaceful moments, I found a(n) 13 with nature and with my husband. I found a reminder that there is a world 14 the computer and the 15 of our fast-paced life.
16, I was reminded that in these quiet moments, we were able to hear the most important voice: our own.
Our world 17 constant attention and engagement. We become so 18 to constantly connecting and engaging with others that we fail to appreciate something19to our happiness: our inner voice.
So take a moment, take a break and take some time to find the quiet in your life. Let the quiet moments in life remind you that your inner voice 20 to be heard.
Xuan paper, known as one of the Four Treasures of Study, first came into (exist) in Xuan Prefecture in the Tang dynasty. The traditional skill of making the paper hand has been passed down through generations. The process takes as many as 100 steps, all of require a level of delicacy.
Take papermaking master Zhou Donghong for example. He uses a fine screen to filter（过滤） a mixture of water and fibers. He lifts it up, and it's a sheet of paper. It takes him and his partner only 15 seconds (form) and shape it, but they've devoted (them) to perfecting the skills for decades.
"There are a lot of tricks of filtering the fibers, and timing is the (difficult) part of all. We have only one chance to filter the right amount of fibers, and only the proper weight guarantees the paper is neither too thin nor too thick, and the margin for error is (extreme) small," said Zhou. With just the right degree of thickness, top quality Xuan paper holds ink and water tightly.
The skill of papermaking, (recognize) as a national treasure, has also proven to be an international one. We felt great sense of pride as it was listed as a world intangible culture heritage(非物质文化遗产) by UNESCO in 2009. Since then, in Jingxian County, Xuan papermaking (teach) in schools.
When I was young, I was terribly poor in the Chinese. Be afraid of expressing myself was one of the reasons that I rarely did well in school. Once I failed in a mid-term exam. When I got the papers, I realized things could have been better if I listened to the teacher much more attentive. So I turned to my teacher for helps and he told me, "Where there is a will, there is a way. If we are devoted to learning Chinese, you'll make it." I couldn't agree much. From then on, I began to work harder. Out of my expect, I made great progress soon. Today, Chinese is where my strength lies. And I'm grateful for my Chinese teacher.