2019年高考英语真题分类汇编专题12:任务型阅读

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英语考试

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    一、任务型阅读
    • 1. (2019•浙江)根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

          Rock music consists of many different styles. Even though there is a common spirit among all music groups, they make very different music.{#blank#}1{#/blank#}At that time the Beatles entered the world of music from Liverpool.

      After they were given an invitation to appear live on BBC, the Beatles quickly became famous in Britain with nationwide tours. By mid-1963, the Beatles had been extremely popular in England. {#blank#}2{#/blank#}They held large concerts and performed at clubs. They became the hottest thing on the pop music scene in England. They began as a modestly successful musician group and ended the year as show business legends(传说). John Lennon and Paul McCartney were named composers of the year.

          {#blank#}3{#/blank#}They were not sure how the Americans would react to the new type of music. Beatlemania hit New York on February 7, 1964. Hundreds of fans jammed the airport to greet them. {#blank#}4{#/blank#} The concert was broadcast live and attracted the largest one night audience in the history of television up to that time. The Beatles were described as a British invasion(入侵)by local and nationwide newspapers at that time. Their victory in America was still remembered as a major turning point in the history of rock and roll. Thanks to the Beatles, a lot of opportunities were opened up to new faces on the market. {#blank#}5{#/blank#}

      A. They decided on a tour to the United States in 1964.

      B. Even their hairstyles became major trends at that time.

      C. Rock music developed in the 1950s and the early 1960s.

      D. However, their songs changed the lives of generations to come.

      E. Many rock bands were able to follow in the footsteps of the Beatles.

      F. They appeared in the films A Hard Day's Night(1964)and Help!(1965).

      G. They performed their first concert in America at CBS television's 53rd street studio.

    • 2. (2019•北京)根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

      A. It's not a simple matter to determine the nature of talent.

      B. Sports team owners spend millions of dollars attracting top talent

      C. The group interaction and its effect drew the researchers' attention.

      D. Stars apparently do not follow this basic principle of sportsmanship.

      E. Several recent studies examined the role of talent in the sports world.

      F. Building up a dream team is more complex than simply hiring the best talent.

      G. This task interdependence distinguishes baseball from football and basketball.

          Much of the work in today's world is accomplished (完成) in teams. Most people believe the best way to build a great team is to gather a group of the most talented individuals. {#blank#}1{#/blank#} Companies spend millions hiring top business people. Is their money well spent?

          {#blank#}2{#/blank#} They focused on football, basketball and baseball. The results are mixed. For football and basketball, adding talented players to a team proves a good method, but only up to the point where 70% of the players are top talent; above that level, the team's performance begins to decline. Interestingly, this trend isn't evident in baseball, where additional individual talent keeps improving the team's performance.

          To explain this phenomenon, the researchers explored the degree to which a good performance by a team requires its members to coordinate (协调) their actions. {#blank#}3{#/blank#} In baseball, the performance of individual players is less dependent on teammates. They conclude that when task interdependence is high, team performance will suffer when there is too much talent, while individual talent will have positive effects on team performance when task interdependence is lower. If a basketball star is, for example, trying to gain a high personal point total, he may take a shot himself when it would be better to pass the ball to a teammate, affecting the team's performance. Young children learning to play team sports are often told, "There is no I in TEAM." {#blank#}4{#/blank#}

          Another possibility is that when there is a lot of talent on a team, some players may make less effort. Just as in a game of tug-of-war (拔河比赛), whenever a person is added, everyone else pulls the rope with less force.

          {#blank#}5{#/blank#}. An A-team may require a balance-not just a players, but a few generous B players as well.

    • 3. (2019•江苏)请认真阅读下面短文,并根据所读内容在文章后表格中的空格里填入一个最恰当的单词。

      The Cost of Thinking

          Despite their many differences, all human beings share several defining characteristics, such as large brains and the ability to walk upright on two legs.

          The first unique human characteristic is that humans have extraordinarily large brains compared with other animals. It seems obvious that evolution should select for larger brains. Mammals (哺乳动物) weighing sixty kilograms have an average brain size of 200 cm2. Modern man has a brain averaging 1200-1400 cm2. We are so fond of our high intelligence that we assume that when it comes to brain power, more must be better. Unfortunately, that is not the case.

          The fact is that a huge brain is a huge drain—consumption of energy—on the body. I's not easy to carry around, especially when boxed inside a massive skull (倾骨). It's even harder to provides energy. In modern man, the brain accounts for about 2-3%of total body weight but it consumes 25% of the body's energy when the body is at rest. By comparison, the brains of apes (类人猿) require only 8%of rest-time energy. Early humans pad for their large brains in two ways. Firstly, they spent more time in search food. Secondly, their muscles grew smaller and weaker. It's hardly an obvious conclusion that this is a good way to survive. A chimpanzee (黑猩猩) can't win an argument with a modern man, but it can tear the man apart like a rag doll.

          Another unique human characteristic is that we walk upright. Standing up, it's easier to find food or enemies. In addition, their arms that are unnecessary for moving around are freed for other purposes, like throwing stones or signaling. As a result, humans can perform very complex tasks with their hands.

          Yet walking upright has its disadvantage. The bone structure of our ancestors developed for millions of years to support a creature that walked on all fours and has a relatively small head. Adjusting to an upright position was quite a challenge, especially when the bones had to support an extra-large skull. Humankind paid for its broad vision and skillful hands backaches and painful necks.

          We assume that a large brain makes huge advantages. It seems obvious that these have made humankind the most powerful animal on earth. But humans enjoyed all of these advantages for a full 2 million years during which they remained weak and marginal creature. Thus humans who lived a million years ago, despite their big brains and sharp stone tools, lived in constant fear of meat-eating animals.

      The Cost of Thinking

      Introduction

      •Large brains for their bodies and the ability to walk upright are two {#blank#}1{#/blank#} of human beings.

      The {#blank#}2{#/blank#} of large human brains

      •The larger brains may not be better because of the cost.

      •The big brains make it harder for the body to move around and consume more energy.

      •The animal brain requires less {#blank#}3{#/blank#}when the body is at rest.

      •Large human brains consume more food, and weaken muscles.

      The {#blank#}4{#/blank#} of walking upright

      •Walking upright makes it easy to find food or {#blank#}5{#/blank#}against enemies.

      •Freed hands can serve some {#blank#}6{#/blank#} purpose and perform complex tasks.

      •Walking upright challenges the human bone structure, and {#blank#}7{#/blank#} the size of brains.

      •Walking upright results in {#blank#}8{#/blank#} sufferings.

      Conclusion

      • With a large brain, human beings {#blank#}9{#/blank#} other beings in terms of intelligence.

      • Weak and marginal, human beings remained {#blank#}10{#/blank#} of meat-eating animals.

    • 4. (2019•天津)阅读短文,按照题目要求用英语回答问题。
          Haze Mabry, who has worked as a school keeper for thirteen years, walks into the school building every day and empties garbage cans, wipes down bathrooms and mops wet messes in the hallways.
          Last Friday, after he arrived at the school, instead of finding garbage to clean up, he found almost 800 students lining the hallways with handmade cards, blowing noisemakers and singing a full-throated happy birthday to him. It was his 80th. As he walked the long hallway, some popped out of lime to hug him. They handed him so many cards that they filled several large boxes. Touched by their enthusiastic expression of affection. Mabry thanked them all. "They're like my children," Mabry said.
          On a regular day, students at the school sometimes come up to him to say they're not feeling well or other times to tell him about something that happened at break. He knows most of the kids at the school, but can't name each one. Some of them make him know them. Like Faith, who often forgets her backpack in the cafeteria, and Lucy, who just wants a hug.
          "He won't brag(夸耀)on himself, but it doesn't matter what he's doing or where he is, he will always stop what he's doing to take care of a child if that child is having a bad day. If a child approaches him, he will pause to give that child his undivided attention. He's the most loved one in this building," said Lori Gilreath, a reading teacher.
          Mabry works circles around all the students, cleaning up messes others don't want to touch. He doesn't expect a lot. Mabry said he hadn't planned to do much for his milestone birthday, so he was happy the students had prepared the surprise celebration.
          Over the weekend, he worked through the piles of handmade cards at his house. One card from a student stood out to him. It read: "Mr. Haze, you are my sunshine.”
      1. (1)What is Mabry's daily work as a school keeper?(no more than 5 words)
      2. (2)How did the students celebrate Mabry's birthday?(no more than 15 words)
      3. (3)What does the underlined word in Paragraph 2 probably mean?(1 word)
      4. (4)Why is Mabry's presence at the school important?(no more than 10 words)
      5. (5)Who is the "sunshine" in your life?Please explain. (no more than 20 words)
    • 5. (2019•全国Ⅲ)根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

          In an online class, developing healthy patterns of communication with professors is very important. {#blank#}1{#/blank#} While I have only listed two of each, there are obviously many other situations that can arise. Students should be able to extend the logic(逻辑)of each to their particular circumstance.

          Do's

          {#blank#}2{#/blank#} Questions about subject content are generally welcomed. Before asking questions about the course design, read the syllabus(教学大纲)and learning management system information to be sure the answer isn't hiding in plain sight.

          Participate in discussion forums(论坛), blogs and other open-ended forums for dialogue. {#blank#}3{#/blank#} Be sure to stay on topic and not offer irrelevant information. Make a point, and make it safe for others to do the same.

          Don'ts

          Don't share personal information or stories. Professors are not trained nurses, financial aid experts or your best friends. If you are in need of a deadline extension, simply explain the situation to the professor. {#blank#}4{#/blank#}

          Don't openly express annoyance at a professor or class. {#blank#}5{#/blank#} When a student attacks a professor on the social media, the language used actually says more about the student. If there is truly a concern about a professor's professionalism or ability, be sure to use online course evaluations to calmly offer your comments.

      A. That's what they are for.

      B. Turn to an online instructor for help.

      C. If more information is needed, they will ask.

      D. Remember that online professors get a lot of emails.

      E. Below are some common do's and don't for online learners.

      F. Everyone has taken a not-so-great class at one time or another.

      G. Ask questions, but make sure they are good, thoughtful questions.

    • 6. (2019•全国Ⅱ)根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

          Imagine a child standing on a diving board four feet high and asking himself the question:“Should I jump? This is what motivation or the lack of it can do. Motivation and goal setting are the two sides of same coin. {#blank#}1{#/blank#}Like the child on  the  diving  board, you will stay undecided.

          {#blank#}2{#/blank#} More than that, how should you stay motivated to achieve the goal? First, you need to evaluate yourself , your values your strengths, your weaknesses, your achievements, your desires ,etc. Only then should your you're your goals

          You also need to judge the quality and depth of your motivation. This is quite important, because it is directly related to your commitment. There are times when your heart is not in your work. {#blank#}3{#/blank#} So, slow down and think what you really want to do at that moment. Clarity(清晰)of thoughts can help you move forward.

          Another way of setting realistic goals is to analyze your short and long term objectives, keeping in mind your beliefs, values and strengths. Remember that goals are flexible.{#blank#}4{#/blank#} They also need to be measurable. You must keep these points in mind while setting your goals.

          Your personal circumstances are equally important. For example, you may want to be a Pilot but can't become one because your eyesight is not good enough.{#blank#}5{#/blank#}You should reassess your goals, and motivate yourself to set a fresh goal.

          You will surely need to overcome some difficulties, some planned, but most unplanned. You cannot overcome them without ample motivation. Make sure that you plan for these difficulties at the time of setting your goals.

      A. This can affect your work.
      B. So how should you motivate yourself?

      C. However, this should not discourage you.
      D. So why should we try to set specific goals?
      E. They can change according to circumstances.
      F. Motivation is what you need most to do a good job.

      G. Without motivation you can neither set a goal nor reach it

    • 7. (2019• 全国Ⅰ)根据短文内容,从短文后的选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

      Is Fresh Air Really Good for You?

          We all grew up hearing people tell us to "go out and get some fresh air." {#blank#}1{#/blank#} According to recent studies, the answer is a big YES, if the air quality in your camping area is good.

          {#blank#}2{#/blank#} If the air you're breathing is clean-which it would be if you're away from the smog of cities-then the air is filled with life-giving, energizing oxygen. If you exercise out of doors, your body will learn to breathe more deeply, allowing even more oxygen to get to your muscles(肌肉)and your brain.

          Recently, people have begun studying the connection between the natural world and healing(治愈). {#blank#}3{#/blank#} In these places patients can go to be near nature during their recovery. It turns out that just looking at green, growing things can reduce stress, lower blood pressure, and put people into a better mood(情绪).Greenery is good for us. Hospital patients who see tree branches out their window are likely to recover at a faster rate than patients who see buildings or sky instead. {#blank#}4{#/blank#} It gives us a great feeling of peace.

          {#blank#}5{#/blank#}While the sun's rays can age and harm our skin, they also give is beneficial Vitamin D. To make sure you get enough Vitamin D—but still protect your skin— put on sunscreen right as you head outside. It takes sunscreen about fifteen minutes to start working, and that's plenty of time for your skin to absorb a day's worth of Vitamin D.

      A. Fresh air cleans our lungs.

      B. So what are you waiting for?

      C. Being in nature refreshes us.

      D. Another side benefit of getting fresh air is sunlight.

      E. But is fresh air really as good for you as your mother always said?

      F. Just as importantly, we tend to associate air with health care.

      G. All across the country, recovery centers have begun building Healing Gardens.

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